A liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is an operation that replaces a patients diseased liver with a whole or partial healthy liver from another person.
People who require a liver transplantation have one of the following conditions:
- Acute liver failure
- Chronic liver failure
There are three types of liver transplant surgery procedures:
- Orthotropic transplantation is the replacement of the complete diseased liver with a healthy organ
- Heterotopic transplantation involves the addition of a healthy donor liver at another site, while the diseased liver is left intact
- Reduced-size liver transplantation is most often performed on children and involves the transplanting of a part of the healthy donor liver into a patient
Live donor liver transplantation is possible because the liver, unique among organs in humans, will regenerate.
This means that when part of a liver is taken from a live liver donor for transplantation, the portion that remains in the donor can regenerate to its original size. The portion transplanted into the recipient will also regenerate to a size that fits the recipient's body.
Criteria for live donation of a liver:
- Must be in good physical and mental health
- Must be between the ages of 18 and 60
- Must have a body mass index or BMI that is less than 35
- Must have a compatible blood type with the recipient
- Must be free from the following:
- Significant organ diseases, such as heart disease or kidney disease
- Ongoing malignancy or cancer
- Active or chronic infections
- Active substance abuse